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Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1141

First experimental proof of Proton Boron Capture Therapy (PBCT) to enhance protontherapy effectiveness

Cirrone, GAP, Manti, L, Margarone, D, Petringa, G, Giuffrida, L, Minopoli, A, Picciotto, A, Russo, G, Cammarata, F, Pisciotta, P, others

Protontherapy is hadrontherapy’s fastest-growing modality and a pillar in the battle against cancer. Hadrontherapy’s superiority lies in its inverted depth-dose profile, hence tumour-confined irradiation. Protons, however, lack distinct radiobiological advantages over photons or electrons. Higher LET (Linear Energy Transfer) 12C-ions can overcome cancer radioresistance: DNA lesion complexity increases with LET, resulting in efficient cell killing, i.e. higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, economic and radiobiological issues hamper 12C-ion clinical amenability. Thus, enhancing proton RBE is desirable. To this end, we exploited the p + 11B → 3α reaction to generate high-LET alpha particles with a clinical proton beam. To maximize the reaction rate, we used sodium borocaptate (BSH) with natural boron content. Boron-Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) uses 10B-enriched BSH for neutron irradiation-triggered alpha particles. We recorded significantly increased cellular lethality and chromosome aberration complexity. A strategy combining protontherapy’s ballistic precision with the higher RBE promised by BNCT and 12C-ion therapy is thus demonstrated.

Molecular cytogenetics, 11, 4

Is cancer progression caused by gradual or simultaneous acquisitions of new chromosomes?

Bloomfield, Mathew, Duesberg, Peter

Foulds defined, "Tumor progression (as a) permanent, irreversible qualitative change in one or more of its characters" (Cancer Res. 1954). Accordingly progressions, such as metastases and acquired drug-resistance, were since found to be subspecies of cancers with conserved and numerous new chromosomes. Here we ask whether cancers acquire numerous new chromosomes gradually or simultaneously in progressions. The currently prevailing theory of Nowell (Science, 1976) holds that unexplained "genetic instability" generates "variant sublines (with) changes in chromosome number" and that "clonal" progressions arise by "stepwise selection of more aggressive sublines". The literature, however, contains many examples of "immediate" selections of progressions with numerous new chromosomes - notably experimentally initiated fusions between cancers and heterologous cells. Furthermore, the stepwise progression theory predicts intermediate sublines of cancers with multiple non-clonal additions of new chromosomes. However, the literature does not describe such intermediates. In view of these inconsistencies with stepwise progression we test here a saltational theory, in which the inherent variability of cancer-specific aneuploidy generates "immediate" progressions with individual clonal karyotypes, transcriptomes and phenotypes in single steps. Using cell fusion as an established controllable model of "immediate" progression, we generated seven immortal murine hybridomas by fusing immortal murine myeloma cells and normal antibody-producing B-cells with polyethylene glycol within a few minutes. These immortal hybridomas contained individual sets of 71 to 105 clonal chromosomes, compared to the 52 chromosomes of the parental myeloma. Thus the myeloma had gained 19 to 53 new clonal chromosomes in seven individual hybridomas in a single step. Furthermore, no stable intermediates were found, as would be predicted by a saltational process. We conclude that random fusions between myelomas and normal B-cells generate clonal hybridomas with multiple, individual chromosomes in single steps. Similar single-step mechanisms may also generate the "late" clonal progressions of cancers with gains of numerous new chromosomes and thus explain the absence of intermediates. Latency would reflect the low probability of rare stochastic progressions. In conclusion, the karyotypic clonality of hybridomas and spontaneous progressions suggests karyotypic alterations as proximate causes of neoplastic progressions. Since cancer-specific aneuploidy catalyzes karyotypic variation, the degree of aneuploidy predicts the clinical risk of neoplastic progression onfirming classical predictions based on DNA content

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-017-0350-4

Biotechnology journal

Changes in Chromosome Counts and Patterns in CHO Cell Lines upon Generation of Recombinant Cell Lines and Subcloning.

Vcelar, Sabine, Melcher, Michael, Auer, Norbert, Hrdina, Astrid, Puklowski, Anja, Leisch, Friedrich, Jadhav, Vaibhav, Wenger, Till, Baumann, Martina, Borth, Nicole

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the number one production system for therapeutic proteins. A pre-requirement for their use in industrial production of biopharmaceuticals is to be clonal, thus originating from a single cell in order to be phenotypically and genomically identical. In the present study it was evaluated whether standard procedures, such as the generation of a recombinant cell line in combination with selection for a specific and stable phenotype (expression of the recombinant product) or subcloning have any impact on karyotype stability or homogeneity in CHO cells. Analyses used were the distribution of chromosome counts per cell as well as chromosome painting to identify specific karyotype patterns within a population. Results indicate that subclones both of the host and the recombinant cell line are of comparable heterogeneity and (in)stability as the original pool. In contrast, the rigorous selection for a stably expressing phenotype generated cell lines with fewer variation and more stable karyotypes, both at the level of the sorted pool and derivative subclones. We conclude that the process of subcloning itself does not contribute to an improved karyotypic homogeneity of a population, while the selection for a specific cell property inherently can provide evolutionary pressure that may lead to improved chromosomal stability as well as to a more homogenous population.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/biot.201700495

BMC medical genomics, 11, 44

A child with multiple congenital anomalies due to partial trisomy 7q22.1 → qter resulting from a maternally inherited balanced translocation: a case report and review of literature.

Paththinige, C S, Sirisena, N D, Kariyawasam, U G I U, Ediriweera, R C, Kruszka, P, Muenke, M, Dissanayake, V H W

Parental balanced reciprocal translocations can result in partial aneuploidies in the offspring due to unbalanced meiotic segregation during gametogenesis. Herein, we report the phenotypic and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a 2 years and 4 months old female child with partial trisomy 7q22 → qter. This is the first such reported case resulting from a parental balanced translocation involving the long arms of chromosomes 7 and 14. The phenotype of the proband was compared with that of previously reported cases of trisomy 7q21 → qter or 7q22 → qter resulting from parental balanced translocations. The proband was born pre-term to a 34-year-old mother with a history of two first trimester miscarriages and an early infant death. She was referred at the age of 8 months for genetic evaluation due to prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, developmental delay and multiple congenital anomalies. On clinical evaluation, she had craniofacial dysmorphic features such as scaphocephaly, large anterior fontanelle with open posterior fontanelle, prominent occiput, triangular face, high forehead, hypertelorism, down slanting eyes, flat nasal bridge, small nose, low set ears, micro-retrognathia, high arched palate and short neck. Cranial computerized tomography scan showed lateral ventriculomegaly with features of early cerebral atrophy. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed the karyotype 46,XX,der(14)t(7;14)(q22;q32)mat in the proband due to an unbalanced segregation of a maternal balanced translocation t(7;14)(q22;q32). Fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis confirmed the partial trisomy 7q22 → qter in the proband with a minimal loss of genetic material on chromosome 14. Single nucleotide polymorphism array further confirmed the duplication on chromosome 7q22.1 → qter and a small terminal deletion on chromosome 14q32.3 → qter. We report the longest-surviving child with trisomy 7q22 → qter due to a parental balanced translocation between chromosomes 7 and 14. Clinical features observed in the proband were consistent with the consensus phenotype of partial trisomy 7q22 → qter reported in the scientific literature. Early diagnosis of these patients using molecular cytogenetic techniques is important for establishing the precise diagnosis and for making decisions pertaining to the prognostication and management of affected individuals.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s12920-018-0366-6

eLife, 7

Distinct roles of ATM and ATR in the regulation of ARP8 phosphorylation to prevent chromosome translocations.

Sun, Jiying, Shi, Lin, Kinomura, Aiko, Fukuto, Atsuhiko, Horikoshi, Yasunori, Oma, Yukako, Harata, Masahiko, Ikura, Masae, Ikura, Tsuyoshi, Kanaar, Roland, Tashiro, Satoshi

Chromosomal translocations are hallmarks of various types of cancers and leukemias. However, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome translocations remain largely unknown. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, facilitates DNA repair to prevent chromosome abnormalities. Previously, we showed that ATM deficiency led to the 11q23 chromosome translocation, the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemia. Here, we show that ARP8, a subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, is phosphorylated after etoposide treatment. The etoposide-induced phosphorylation of ARP8 is regulated by ATM and ATR, and attenuates its interaction with INO80. The ATM-regulated phosphorylation of ARP8 reduces the excessive loading of INO80 and RAD51 onto the breakpoint cluster region. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of ARP8, regulated by ATM, plays an important role in maintaining the fidelity of DNA repair to prevent the etoposide-induced 11q23 abnormalities.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.7554/eLife.32222

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 59, 561--571

A Novel C-Terminal Mutation in Gsdma3 (C+/H-) Leads to Alopecia and Corneal Inflammatory Response in Mice.

Swirski, Sebastian, Röger, Carsten, Pienkowska-Schelling, Aldona, Ihlenburg, Cynthia, Fischer, Gösta, May, Oliver, Vorm, Mariann, Owczarek-Lipska, Marta, Neidhardt, John

Mutations in the gene encoding Gasdermin A3 (Gsdma3) have been described to cause severe skin phenotypes, including loss of sebaceous glands and alopecia, in mice. We discovered a novel C-terminal mutation in Gsdma3 in a new mouse line and characterized a less frequently reported corneal phenotype, likely caused by degeneration of Meibomian glands of the inner eyelid. We used histologic methods to evaluate the effects of the C+/H- mutation on sebaceous gland and skin morphology as well as Meibomian glands of the inner eyelid and corneal tissue. Chromosomal aberrations were excluded by karyogram analyses. The mutation was identified by Sanger sequencing of candidate genes. Analyses of skin samples from affected mice confirmed the frequently reported phenotypes associated with mutations in Gsdma3: Degeneration of sebaceous glands and complete loss of pelage. Immunologic staining of corneal samples suggested an inflammatory response with signs of neovascularization in half of the affected older mice. While the corneal phenotype was observed at irregular time points, mainly after 6 months, its appearance coincided with a degeneration of Meibomian glands in the eyelids of affected animals. The mutation described herein is associated with inflammation and neovascularization of corneal tissue. Simultaneous degeneration of Meibomian glands in affected animals suggested a change in tear-film composition as the underlying cause for the corneal phenotype. Our data further support that different pathogenic mechanisms underlie some of the reported mutations in Gsdma3.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1167/iovs.17-22658

Scientific reports, 7, 3291

Transmission of Induced Chromosomal Aberrations through Successive Mitotic Divisions in Human Lymphocytes after In Vitro and In Vivo Radiation.

Kaddour, Akram, Colicchio, Bruno, Buron, Diane, El Maalouf, Elie, Laplagne, Eric, Borie, Claire, Ricoul, Michelle, Lenain, Aude, Hempel, William M, Morat, Luc, Al Jawhari, Mustafa, Cuceu, Corina, Heidingsfelder, Leonhard, Jeandidier, Eric, Deschênes, Georges, Dieterlen, Alain, El May, Michèle, Girinsky, Theodore, Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise, Carde, Patrice, Sabatier, Laure, M'kacher, Radhia

The mechanisms behind the transmission of chromosomal aberrations (CA) remain unclear, despite a large body of work and major technological advances in chromosome identification. We reevaluated the transmission of CA to second- and third-division cells by telomere and centromere (TC) staining followed by M-FISH. We scored CA in lymphocytes of healthy donors after in vitro irradiation and those of cancer patients treated by radiation therapy more than 12 years before. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that dicentric chromosomes (DCs) decreased by approximately 50% per division. DCs with two centromeres in close proximity were more efficiently transmitted, representing 70% of persistent DCs in ≥M3 cells. Only 1/3 of acentric chromosomes (ACs), ACs with four telomeres, and interstitial ACs, were paired in M2 cells and associated with specific DCs configurations. In lymphocytes of cancer patients, 82% of detected DCs were characterized by these specific configurations. Our findings demonstrate the high stability of DCs with two centromeres in close proximity during cell division. The frequency of telomere deletion increased during cell cycle progression playing an important role in chromosomal instability. These findings could be exploited in the follow-up of exposed populations.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/s41598-017-03198-7

Molecular cell

DNA Double-Strand Break Resection Occurs during Non-homologous End Joining in G1 but Is Distinct from Resection during Homologous Recombination.

Biehs, Ronja, Steinlage, Monika, Barton, Olivia, Juhász, Szilvia, Künzel, Julia, Spies, Julian, Shibata, Atsushi, Jeggo, Penny A, Löbrich, Markus

Canonical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in G1 cells with biphasic kinetics. We show that DSBs repaired with slow kinetics, including those localizing to heterochromatic regions or harboring additional lesions at the DSB site, undergo resection prior to repair by c-NHEJ and not alt-NHEJ. Resection-dependent c-NHEJ represents an inducible process during which Plk3 phosphorylates CtIP, mediating its interaction with Brca1 and promoting the initiation of resection. Mre11 exonuclease, EXD2, and Exo1 execute resection, and Artemis endonuclease functions to complete the process. If resection does not commence, then repair can ensue by c-NHEJ, but when executed, Artemis is essential to complete resection-dependent c-NHEJ. Additionally, Mre11 endonuclease activity is dispensable for resection in G1. Thus, resection in G1 differs from the process in G2 that leads to homologous recombination. Resection-dependent c-NHEJ significantly contributes to the formation of deletions and translocations in G1, which represent important initiating events in carcinogenesis.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1016/j.molcel.2016.12.016

Endocr Relat Cancer, 23(8), 635–650
August, 2016

Effect of low doses of estradiol and tamoxifen on breast cancer cell karyotypes.

Rondón-Lagos, Milena, Rangel, Nelson, Di Cantogno, Ludovica Verdun, Annaratone, Laura, Castellano, Isabella, Russo, Rosalia, Manetta, Tilde, Marchiò, Caterina, Sapino, Anna

Evidence supports a role of 17&-estradiol (E2) in carcinogenesis and the large majority of breast carcinomas are dependent on estrogen. The anti-estrogen tamoxifen (TAM) is widely used for both treatment and prevention of breast cancer; however, it is also carcinogenic in human uterus and rat liver, highlighting the profound complexity of its actions. The nature of E2- or TAM-induced chromosomal damage has been explored using relatively high concentrations of these agents, and only some numerical aberrations and chromosomal breaks have been analyzed. This study aimed to determine the effects of low doses of E2 and TAM (10(&8 )mol L(&1) and 10(&6 )mol L(&1) respectively) on karyotypes of MCF7, T47D, BT474, and SKBR3 breast cancer cells by comparing the results of conventional karyotyping and multi-FISH painting with cell proliferation. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (+) cells showed an increase in cell proliferation after E2 treatment (MCF7, T47D, and BT474) and a decrease after TAM treatment (MCF7 and T47D), whereas in ER& cells (SKBR3), no alterations in cell proliferation were observed, except for a small increase at 96 h. Karyotypes of both ER+ and ER& breast cancer cells increased in complexity after treatments with E2 and TAM leading to specific chromosomal abnormalities, some of which were consistent throughout the treatment duration. This genotoxic effect was higher in HER2+ cells. The ER&/HER2+ SKBR3 cells were found to be sensitive to TAM, exhibiting an increase in chromosomal aberrations. These in vitro results provide insights into the potential role of low doses of E2 and TAM in inducing chromosomal rearrangements in breast cancer cells.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1530/ERC-16-0078

J Radiat Res, 57(3), 220–226
June, 2016

Analysis of chromosome translocation frequency after a single CT scan in adults.

Abe, Yu, Miura, Tomisato, Yoshida, Mitsuaki A., Ujiie, Risa, Kurosu, Yumiko, Kato, Nagisa, Katafuchi, Atsushi, Tsuyama, Naohiro, Kawamura, Fumihiko, Ohba, Takashi, Inamasu, Tomoko, Shishido, Fumio, Noji, Hideyoshi, Ogawa, Kazuei, Yokouchi, Hiroshi, Kanazawa, Kenya, Ishida, Takashi, Muto, Satoshi, Ohsugi, Jun, Suzuki, Hiroyuki, Ishikawa, Tetsuo, Kamiya, Kenji, Sakai, Akira

We recently reported an increase in dicentric chromosome (DIC) formation after a single computed tomography (CT) scan (5.78-60.27 mSv: mean 24.24 mSv) and we recommended analysis of 2000 metaphase cells stained with Giemsa and centromere-FISH for dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) in cases of low-dose radiation exposure. In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of chromosome translocations using stored Carnoy's-fixed lymphocyte specimens from the previous study; these specimens were from 12 patients who were subject to chromosome painting of Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 were analyzed in ∼5000 cells, which is equivalent to the whole-genome analysis of almost 2000 cells. The frequency of chromosome translocation was higher than the number of DICs formed, both before and after CT scanning. The frequency of chromosome translocations tended to be higher, but not significantly higher, in patients with a treatment history compared with patients without such a history. However, in contrast to the results for DIC formation, the frequency of translocations detected before and after the CT scan did not differ significantly. Therefore, analysis of chromosome translocation may not be a suitable assay for detecting chromosome aberrations in cases of low-dose radiation exposure from a CT scan. A significant increase in the frequency of chromosome translocations was not likely to be detected due to the high baseline before the CT scan; the high and variable frequency of translocations was probably due to multiple confounding factors in adults.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1093/jrr/rrv090

Tumour Biol, 37(3), 4041–4052
March, 2016

Establishment and characterization of a human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line derived from an Italian patient.

Cavalloni, Giuliana, Peraldo-Neia, Caterina, Varamo, Chiara, Casorzo, Laura, Dell'Aglio, Carmine, Bernabei, Paola, Chiorino, Giovanna, Aglietta, Massimo, Leone, Francesco

Biliary tract carcinoma is a rare malignancy with multiple causes, which underlie the different genetic and molecular profiles. Cancer cell lines are affordable models, reflecting the characteristics of the tumor of origin. They represent useful tools to identify molecular targets for treatment. Here, we established and characterized from biological, molecular, and genetic point of view, an Italian intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line (ICC), the MT-CHC01. MT-CHC01 cells were isolated from a tumor-derived xenograft. Immunophenotypical characterization was evaluated both at early and after stabilization passages. In vitro biological, genetic, and molecular features were also investigated. In vivo tumorigenicity was assessed in NOD/SCID mice. MT-CHC01cells retain epithelial cell markers, EPCAM, CK7, and CK19, and some stemness and pluripotency markers, i.e., SOX2, Nanog, CD49f/integrin-α6, CD24, PDX1, FOXA2, and CD133. They grow as a monolayer, with a population double time of about 40 h; they show a low migration and invasion potential. In low attachment conditions, they are able to form spheres and to growth in anchorage-independent manner. After subcutaneous injection, they retain in vivo tumorigenicity; the expression of biliary markers as CA19-9 and CEA were maintained from primary tumor. The karyotype is highly complex, with a hypotriploid to hypertriploid modal number (3n+/-) (52 to 77 chromosomes); low level of HER2 gene amplification, TP53 deletion, gain of AURKA were identified; K-RAS G12D mutation were maintained from primary tumor to MT-CHC01 cells. We established the first ICC cell line derived from an Italian patient. It will help to study either the biology of this tumor or to test drugs both in vitro and in vivo.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1007/s13277-015-4215-3

Oncotarget, 7(9), 10182–10192
March, 2016

Chromothripsis-like chromosomal rearrangements induced by ionizing radiation using proton microbeam irradiation system.

Morishita, Maki, Muramatsu, Tomoki, Suto, Yumiko, Hirai, Momoki, Konishi, Teruaki, Hayashi, Shin, Shigemizu, Daichi, Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko, Moriyama, Keiji, Inazawa, Johji

Chromothripsis is the massive but highly localized chromosomal rearrangement in response to a one-step catastrophic event, rather than an accumulation of a series of subsequent and random alterations. Chromothripsis occurs commonly in various human cancers and is thought to be associated with increased malignancy and carcinogenesis. However, the causes and consequences of chromothripsis remain unclear. Therefore, to identify the mechanism underlying the generation of chromothripsis, we investigated whether chromothripsis could be artificially induced by ionizing radiation. We first elicited DNA double-strand breaks in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line HOC313-P and its highly metastatic subline HOC313-LM, using Single Particle Irradiation system to Cell (SPICE), a focused vertical microbeam system designed to irradiate a spot within the nuclei of adhesive cells, and then established irradiated monoclonal sublines from them, respectively. SNP array analysis detected a number of chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in these sublines, and one HOC313-LM-derived monoclonal subline irradiated with 200 protons by the microbeam displayed multiple CNAs involved locally in chromosome 7. Multi-color FISH showed a complex translocation of chromosome 7 involving chromosomes 11 and 12. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing analysis revealed multiple de novo complex chromosomal rearrangements localized in chromosomes 2, 5, 7, and 20, resembling chromothripsis. These findings suggested that localized ionizing irradiation within the nucleus may induce chromothripsis-like complex chromosomal alterations via local DNA damage in the nucleus.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.18632/oncotarget.7186

Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 55(1), 60–68
January, 2016

Functional characterization, localization, and inhibitor sensitivity of the TPR-FGFR1 fusion in 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome.

Malli, Theodora, Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika, Rammer, Melanie, Erdel, Martin, Kranewitter, Wolfgang, Rumpold, Holger, Marschon, Renate, Deutschbauer, Sabine, Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid, Valent, Peter, Muellner-Ammer, Kirsten, Sebesta, Christian, Birkner, Thomas, Webersinke, Gerald

Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) abnormalities, also known as 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS), represent rare and aggressive disorders, associated with chromosomal aberrations that lead to the fusion of FGFR1 to different partner genes. We report on a third patient with a fusion of the translocated promoter region (TPR) gene, a component of the nuclear pore complex, to FGFR1 due to a novel ins(1;8)(q25;p11p23). The fact that this fusion is a rare but recurrent event in EMS prompted us to examine the localization and transforming potential of the chimeric protein. TPR-FGFR1 localizes in the cytoplasm, although the nuclear pore localization signal of TPR is retained in the fusion protein. Furthermore, TPR-FGFR1 enables cytokine-independent survival, proliferation, and granulocytic differentiation of the interleukin-3 dependent myeloid progenitor cell line 32Dcl3, reflecting the chronic phase of EMS characterized by myeloid hyperplasia. 32Dcl3 cells transformed with the TPR-FGFR1 fusion and treated with increasing concentrations of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors ponatinib (AP24534) and infigratinib (NVP-BGJ398) displayed reduced survival and proliferation with IC50 values of 49.8 and 7.7 nM, respectively. Ponatinib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is already shown to be effective against several FGFR1-fusion kinases. Infigratinib, tested only against FGFR1OP2-FGFR1 to date, is also efficient against TPR-FGFR1. Taking its high specificity for FGFRs into account, infigratinib could be beneficial for EMS patients and should be further investigated for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms with FGFR1 abnormalities.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/gcc.22311

Atom Indonesia, 42(2), 71-77

Comparison of Radiosensitivity of Human Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 from One Healthy Donor

Ramadhani, Purnami, Yoshida

In general, it was assumed that the chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation is proportional to the chromosome size. From this viewpoint, the higher chromosome size, the more resistant to radiation. However, different opinions, in which chromosomes are particularly sensitive or resistant to radiation, are also still followed until now. Here in this research, we compared the chromosome sensitivity between chromosomes number 1, 2, and 4 using the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) technique. From this research, we expect that the information obtained could show clearly whether a longer chromosome is more frequently involved in translocations and also more resistant to radiation than a shorter one. The type of chromosome aberration considered was limited only to translocation and we used one sample donor in order to avoid donor variability. The whole blood from a healthy female was irradiated with γ-rays with doses of 1, 3 and 5 Gy, respectively. Isolated lymphocytes from the whole blood were then cultured for 48 hours. After the culture process was completed, preparations of harvest and metaphase chromosomes were carried out. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were stained with different fluorochromes. The translocation of each chromosome at each dose point was subsequently evaluated from 50 images obtained from an automated metaphase finder and capturing system. An additional analysis was performed to identify which chromosome arm was more frequently involved in translocation. Further analyses were also conducted with the aim of determining which chromosome band had a higher frequency of radiation-induced breakage. The experimental results showed that chromosome number 4 was more frequently involved in translocations compared to chromosomes 1 and 2 at 5 Gy. In contrast, at doses of 1 and 3 Gy translocations involving chromosomes number 1 and 2 were more numerous compared to the ones involving chromosome 4. However, if the number of translocation was accumulated for all the doses applied, the chromosome number 4 was the chromosome most frequently involved in translocations. Breakpoint analysis revealed that in chromosome 1, chromosome 2, and chromosome 4, the highest chromosome bands as break position were in band q32, p13, and q21, respectively. It can be concluded that chromosome 4 is more sensitive to radiation in all doses point, despite having less DNA content than chromosomes 1 and 2. Thus, it was showed that our research cannot support the general assumption about chromosome aberration induced by radiation being proportional to DNA content.

Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2016, 6089658

The Role of Chromosomal Instability and Epigenetics in Colorectal Cancers Lacking beta-Catenin/TCF Regulated Transcription.

Abdel-Rahman, Wael M., Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna E., Kaur, Sippy, Niskakoski, Anni, Knuutila, Sakari, Järvinen, Heikki, Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka, Peltomäki, Päivi

All colorectal cancer cell lines except RKO displayed active β-catenin/TCF regulated transcription. This feature of RKO was noted in familial colon cancers; hence our aim was to dissect its carcinogenic mechanism. MFISH and CGH revealed distinct instability of chromosome structure in RKO. Gene expression microarray of RKO versus 7 colon cancer lines (with active Wnt signaling) and 3 normal specimens revealed 611 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the tested gene loci were susceptible to LOH in primary tumors with various β-catenin localizations as a surrogate marker for β-catenin activation. The immunohistochemistry of selected genes (IFI16, RGS4, MCTP1, DGKI, OBCAM/OPCML, and GLIPR1) confirmed that they were differentially expressed in clinical specimens. Since epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to expression changes, selected target genes were evaluated for promoter methylation in patient specimens from sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers. CMTM3, DGKI, and OPCML were frequently hypermethylated in both groups, whereas KLK10, EPCAM, and DLC1 displayed subgroup specificity. The overall fraction of hypermethylated genes was higher in tumors with membranous β-catenin. We identified novel genes in colorectal carcinogenesis that might be useful in personalized tumor profiling. Tumors with inactive Wnt signaling are a heterogeneous group displaying interaction of chromosomal instability, Wnt signaling, and epigenetics.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1155/2016/6089658

Nat Commun, 7, 10529

RAG2 and XLF/Cernunnos interplay reveals a novel role for the RAG complex in DNA repair.

Lescale, Chloé, Abramowski, Vincent, Bedora-Faure, Marie, Murigneux, Valentine, Vera, Gabriella, Roth, David B., Revy, Patrick, de Villartay, Jean-Pierre, Deriano, Ludovic

XRCC4-like factor (XLF) functions in classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ) but is dispensable for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during V(D)J recombination. A long-standing hypothesis proposes that, in addition to its canonical nuclease activity, the RAG1/2 proteins participate in the DNA repair phase of V(D)J recombination. Here we show that in the context of RAG2 lacking the C-terminus domain (Rag2(c/c) mice), XLF deficiency leads to a profound lymphopenia associated with a severe defect in V(D)J recombination and, in the absence of p53, increased genomic instability at V(D)J sites. In addition, Rag2(c/c) XLF(-/-) p53(-/-) mice develop aggressive pro-B cell lymphomas bearing complex chromosomal translocations and gene amplifications involving Igh and c-myc/pvt1 loci. Our results reveal an unanticipated functional interplay between the RAG complex and XLF in repairing RAG-induced DSBs and maintaining genome integrity during antigen receptor gene assembly.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/ncomms10529

Sci Rep, 6, 32510

Replication Timing of Human Telomeres is Conserved during Immortalization and Influenced by Respective Subtelomeres.

Piqueret-Stephan, Laure, Ricoul, Michelle, Hempel, William M., Sabatier, Laure

Telomeres are specific structures that protect chromosome ends and act as a biological clock, preventing normal cells from replicating indefinitely. Mammalian telomeres are replicated throughout S-phase in a predetermined order. However, the mechanism of this regulation is still unknown. We wished to investigate this phenomenon under physiological conditions in a changing environment, such as the immortalization process to better understand the mechanism for its control. We thus examined the timing of human telomere replication in normal and SV40 immortalized cells, which are cytogenetically very similar to cancer cells. We found that the timing of telomere replication was globally conserved under different conditions during the immortalization process. The timing of telomere replication was conserved despite changes in telomere length due to endogenous telomerase reactivation, in duplicated homologous chromosomes, and in rearranged chromosomes. Importantly, translocated telomeres, possessing their initial subtelomere, retained the replication timing of their homolog, independently of the proportion of the translocated arm, even when the remaining flanking DNA is restricted to its subtelomere, the closest chromosome-specific sequences (inferior to 500 kb). Our observations support the notion that subtelomere regions strongly influence the replication timing of the associated telomere.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1038/srep32510

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT

Genotoxic risk of ethyl-paraben could be related to telomere shortening.

Finot, F, Kaddour, A, Morat, L, Mouche, I, Zaguia, N, Cuceu, C, Souverville, D, Négrault, S, Cariou, O, Essahli, A, Prigent, N, Saul, J, Paillard, F, Heidingsfelder, L, Lafouge, P, Al Jawhari, M, Hempel, W M, El May, M, Colicchio, B, Dieterlen, A, Jeandidier, E, Sabatier, L, Clements, J, M'Kacher, R

The ability of parabens to promote the appearance of multiple cancer hallmarks in breast epithelium cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implication of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. It is well documented that telomere dysfunction plays a significant role in the initiation of genomic instability during carcinogenesis in human breast cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic effect of ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (ethyl-paraben), with and without metabolic activation (S9), in studies following OECD guidelines. We observed a significant increase in genotoxic damage using the Mouse Lymphoma Assay and in vitro micronucleus (MN) tests in the L5178Y cell line in the presence of S9 only after a short exposure. A high frequency of MN was observed in the TK6 cells after a short exposure (3 h) in the presence of S9 and a long exposure (26 h) without S9. We found significant increases in the MN frequency and induced chromosomal aberrations in the lymphocytes of only one donor after ethyl-paraben exposure in the presence of S9 after a short exposure. Cytogenetic characterization of the paraben-treated cells demonstrated telomere shortening associated with telomere loss and telomere deletions in L5178Y and TK6 cells and lymphocytes of the paraben sensitive-donor. In a control cohort of 68 human lymphocytes, telomere length and telomere aberrations were age-dependent and showed high inter-individual variation. This study is the first to link telomere shortening and the genotoxic effect of ethyl paraben in the presence of S9 and raises the possibility that telomere shortening may be a proxy for underlying inter-individual sensitivity to ethyl-paraben. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1002/jat.3425

J Med Case Rep, 10, 203

Acute promyelocytic leukemia with the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q21) associated with t(1;2)(q42~43;q11.2~12): a case report.

Wafa, Abdulsamad, Moassass, Faten, Liehr, Thomas, Al-Ablog, Ayman, Al-Achkar, Walid

Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by a typical reciprocal translocation t(15;17)(q22;q21). Additional chromosomal abnormalities are reported in only 23-43 \% of cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia.Here we report the case of a 46-year-old Syrian Alawis woman with acute promyelocytic leukemia with the typical t(15;17) translocation, but with a second clone presenting a t(1;2)(q42~43;q11.2~12) translocation as an additional abnormality. To the best of our knowledge, an association between these chromosomal abnormalities has not previously been described in the literature. Our patient started treatment with all-trans retinoic acid 10 days after diagnosis but died the same day of treatment initiation due to hemolysis, intracranial hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation.The here reported combination of aberrations in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia seems to indicate an adverse prognosis, and possibly shows that all-trans retinoic acid treatment may be contraindicated in such cases.

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13256-016-0982-8

Molecular cytogenetics, 9, 90

Inherent variability of cancer-specific aneuploidy generates metastases.

Bloomfield, Mathew, Duesberg, Peter

The genetic basis of metastasis is still unclear because metastases carry individual karyotypes and phenotypes, rather than consistent mutations, and are rare compared to conventional mutation. There is however correlative evidence that metastasis depends on cancer-specific aneuploidy, and that metastases are karyotypically related to parental cancers. Accordingly we propose that metastasis is a speciation event. This theory holds that cancer-specific aneuploidy varies the clonal karyotypes of cancers automatically by unbalancing thousands of genes, and that rare variants form new autonomous subspecies with metastatic or other non-parental phenotypes like drug-resistance - similar to conventional subspeciation. To test this theory, we analyzed the karyotypic and morphological relationships between seven cancers and corresponding metastases. We found (1) that the cellular phenotypes of metastases were closely related to those of parental cancers, (2) that metastases shared 29 to 96% of their clonal karyotypic elements or aneusomies with the clonal karyotypes of parental cancers and (3) that, unexpectedly, the karyotypic complexity of metastases was very similar to that of the parental cancer. This suggests that metastases derive cancer-specific autonomy by conserving the overall complexity of the parental karyotype. We deduced from these results that cancers cause metastases by karyotypic variations and selection for rare metastatic subspecies. Further we asked whether metastases with multiple metastasis-specific aneusomies are assembled in one or multiple, sequential steps. Since (1) no stable karyotypic intermediates of metastases were observed in cancers here and previously by others, and (2) the karyotypic complexities of cancers are conserved in metastases, we concluded that metastases are generated from cancers in one step - like subspecies in conventional speciation. We conclude that the risk of cancers to metastasize is proportional to the degree of cancer-specific aneuploidy, because aneuploidy catalyzes the generation of subspecies, including metastases, at aneuploidy-dependent rates. Since speciation by random chromosomal rearrangements and selection is unpredictable, the theory that metastases are karyotypic subspecies of cancers also explains Foulds' rules, which hold that the origins of metastases are "abrupt" and that their phenotypes are "unpredictable."

Digital object identifier (DOI): 10.1186/s13039-016-0297-x